THE SBC GAZETTE
The Single-Board 6502
High-Speed Data Transfer
Necessity is INDEED the mother of invention.
For quite some time I've thought about how neat it would be to have some way of transferring data at high speed between two computers. But, as usual, there was always something "more important" to do.
Recently, the need arose to have such a high-speed data transfer system.
As newsletter editor for INTERACTIVE (a newsletter published by Rockwell for the AIM 65), I frequently need to print AIM 65 program listings.
Now the AIM is a great little machine, and the on-board thermal printer is very convenient but a 20 column wide assembly language or BASIC listing just doesn't cut it for publication.
Hooking my Decwriter up to the AIM wouldn't solve the problem because AIM's ROM assembler still formats the outut for a 20 column wide printout.
Clearly, the only practical solution was to somehow move the source code over to my KIM system and assemble it with the HDE assembler.
Fortunately, except for the fact that AIM 65 text editor doesn't use line numbers, the source code is completely compatible between the two machines. (That's because both assemblers have the same origin.)
The software I'm presenting is a version which dumps object code from either the AIM, SYM or 6522 equipped APPLE to my KIM.
I'm not providing the source file transfer program because I've still got some bugs in it. (Maybe I'll print that routine some other time.)
One of the fastest and, perhaps, even the simplest method of transferring data from one computer to another is to do it in parallel. Each computer needs an 8-bit I/O port and several "handshaking" lines for signaling "data sent" and "data received". All of my systems have a user accessible I/O port (I recently installed a 6522 VIA in my Apple II) so all that I needed to do was hook up the lines and write the software. (It always turns out to be "easier said than done", however.)
The first problem turned out to be figuring out the proper "handshaking" sequence. I first looked at the popular "Centroics" style handshaking sequence but decided to simplify it down to two lines (instead of three).Handshaking Sequence
XMTR starts first
- XMTR initializes 'Data Ready' low and waits for the RCVR line 'Acknowledge/Busy' to go low.
- RCVR initializes 'ACK/Busy' low and waits for the 'Data Ready' line to go high indicating that there is a BYTE available on the lines.
- XMTR puts a data BYTE on the lines, sets the 'Data Ready' line high and waits for the RCVR 'ACK/Busy' line to go high signifying that the data has been received.
- RCVR accepts a data BYTE and sets the 'ACK/Busy' high
- XMTR sets 'Data Ready' low after 'Ack/Busy' goes high
If I had to do it all over, I would have added a third line to indicate that the byte on the lines was the last byte to be transferred. This would be better for transferring binary dumps since, in that mode, with only two handshake lines, the receiver has no way of knowing when the data transfer in completed and must be RESET to get it out of an infinite loop.
The neat handshaking modes available in the 6522 on the AIM weren't used because I wanted to be able to use the same software for both the KIM and the AIM and those special I/O operating modes aren't available on KIM since it uses a 6530 for its user I/O. (Although the example software is only used to send data one way—from AIM to KIM, it has been used to send data the other way also).
As far as the hardware connection goes—simply hook PA0-PA7 on the KIM to PA0-PA7 on the AIM (PA0 to PA0, PA1 to PA1 etc), PB0-PB1 on the KIM to PB0-PB1 on the AIM, and then tie the system grounds together. That's not too difficult, is it?
IMPORTANT NOTE: Both systems must be reset to put the I/O lines in a known state (all lines go "high" after a system reset). The order in which the programs are started is also important. The transmit program must be started first, then the receive program.
HDE ASSEMBLER REV 2.2
LINE# ADDR OBJECT LABEL SOURCE PAGE 0001 01-0010 2000 ;THIS PROGRAM TRANSFERS OBJECT CODE 01-0020 2000 ;OVER THE PARALLEL INTERFACE. THE ADDRESS 01-0025 2000 ;LIMITS OF THE DUMP MUST BE SETUP BY 01-0026 2000 ;THE USER IN POINT1 (START) AND 01-0027 2000 ;AND POINT2 (END + 1). 01-0028 2000 01-0030 2000 ;WRITTEN BY ERIC C. REHNKE 9/80 01-0040 2000 01-0050 2000 * = $0000 01-0055 0000 ;WORKING POINTERS 01-0056 0000 01-0057 0000 POINT1 * = * + 2 01-0060 0002 POINT2 * = * + 2 01-0080 0004 01-0095 0004 01-0100 0004 ;6522 LOCATION 01-0105 0004 01-0110 0004 IOBASE = $A000 01-0120 0004 PBD = IOBASE 01-0130 0004 PBDD = IOBASE + 2 01-0140 0004 PADD = IOBASE + 3 01-0150 0004 PAD = IOBASE + 15 01-0160 0004 01-0190 0004 01-0200 0004 * = $200 01-0210 0200 .OFF C000 01-0220 0200 01-0230 0200 D8 CLD ;DON'T EVER FORGET THIS!!!!!!! 01-0290 0201 01-0300 0201 A9 FF INITTX LDA #$FF ;MAKE THE ‘A’ SIDE 01-0310 0203 8D 03 A0 STA PADD ;ALL OUTPUTS 01-0320 0206 A0 00 LDY #0 ;CLEAR THE OFFSET 01-0330 0208 A9 01 LDA #1 ;SET PBO = OUTPUT (DATA READY) 01-0340 020A 8D 02 A0 STA PBDD 01-0350 020D 8C 00 A0 STY PBD ;...AND MAKE IT LOW 01-0355 0210 01-0360 0210 AD 00 A0 CKLOOP LDA PBD ;WAIT HERE FOR THE RCVR 01-0361 0213 29 02 AND #2 ;TO BRING THE ACK/BUSY LOW AND 01-0365 0215 D0 F9 BNE CKLOOP ;SIGNIFY THATS ITS READY. 01-0394 0217 01-0395 0217 A0 00 REENT1 LDY #0 01-0400 0219 B1 00 LDA (POINT1), Y ; NOW GET A CHARACTER 01-0410 021B 01-0420 021B 20 2E 02 JSR XMTR ; ...AND SEND IT ACROSS. 01-0500 021E 01-0510 021E 20 4E 02 JSR INCPTR 01-0520 0221 A5 00 LDA POINT1 ;SEE IF WERE FINISHED 01-0530 0223 C5 02 CMP POINT2 ;BY COMPARING POINTERS 01-0540 0225 D0 F0 BNE REENT1 01-0550 0227 A5 01 LDA POINT1 + 1 01-0560 0229 C5 03 CMP POINT2 + 1 01-0565 022B D0 EA BNE REENT1 01-0610 022D 01-0620 022D 00 BRK ;RETURN TO MON WHEN DONE 01-0630 022E 01-0640 022E ;TRANSMITTER SUBROUTINE 01-0650 022E 01-0660 022E 48 XMTR PHA ;SAVE THE CHARACTER01-0670 022F 48 PHA ;TWICE 01-0680 0230 AD 00 A0 ACKLP1 LDA PBD ;WAIT TILL ‘ACK/BUSY’ IS LOW 01-0690 0233 29 02 AND #2 01-0700 0235 D0 F9 BNE ACKLP1 01-0710 0237 01-0720 0237 68 PLA ;RECOVER DATA 01-0730 0238 8D 0F A0 STA PAD 01-0740 023B A9 01 LDA # 1 ;RAISE ‘DATA READY’ HIGH 01-0750 023D 8D 00 A0 STA PBD 01-0760 0240 01-0770 0240 AD 00 A0 ACKLP2 LDA PBD ;WAIT TIL ‘ACK/BUSY’ IS HIGH 01-0780 0243 29 02 AND #2 01-0790 0245 F0 F9 BEQ ACKLP2 01-0800 0247 01-0810 0247 A9 00 LDA #0 ;NOW DROP THE ‘DATA READY’ LINE 01-0820 0249 8D 00 A0 STA PBD 01-0830 024C 68 PLA ;RECOVER CHAR FOR CR TEST 01-0840 024D 60 RTS 01-0850 024E 01-0860 024E ;HERE WE INCREMENT POINT 1 01-0870 024E 01-0880 024E E6 00 INCPTR INC POINT 1 01-0890 0250 D0 02 BNE EXIT 01-0900 0252 E6 01 INC POINT 1 + 1 01-0910 0254 60 EXIT RTS 01-0920 0255 01-0940 0255 01-0950 0255 01-0975 0255 .END
HDE ASSEMBLER REV 2.2
LINE# ADDR OBJECT LABEL SOURCE PAGE 0001 01-0010 2000 ;THIS PROGRAM RECEIVES OBJECT CODE FILES 01-0020 2000 ;OVER THE PARALLEL INTERFACE AND STORES 01-0030 2000 ;THE DATA STARTING AT THE LOCATION 01-0040 2000 ;INDICATED BY THE POINTER AT $0000. 01-0050 2000 ;THIS POINTER MUST BE INITIALIZED BY THE USER. 01-0055 2000 01-0060 2000 ;WRITTEN BY ERIC C. REHNKE 9/80 01-0070 2000 01-0080 2000 * = $0000 01-0090 0000 POINT 1 * = * + 2 01-0100 0002 01-0110 0002 ;6530 LOCATION 01-0115 0002 01-0120 0002 IOBASE = $1700 01-0130 0002 PBD = IOBASE + 2 01-0140 0002 PBDD = IOBASE + 3 01-0150 0002 PADD = IOBASE + 1 01-0160 0002 PAD = IOBASE 01-0170 0002 01-0190 0002 01-0200 0002 * = $2000 01-0210 2000 01-0220 2000 01-0230 2000 01-0240 2000 01-0250 2000 01-0251 2000 D8 CLD ;DON'T EVER FORGET THIS!!!!! 01-0260 2001 A9 00 INITRX LDA #0 ;MAKE THE ‘A’ SIDE ALL INPUTS 01-0270 2003 8D 01 17 STA PADD 01-0280 2006 A0 00 LDY #0 ;CLEAR THE OFFSET 01-0290 2008 A9 02 LDA #2 01-0300 200A 8D 03 17 STA PBDD ;SET PB1 = OUTPUT (ACK/BUSY)01-0310 200D 8D 02 17 STA PBD ;AND MAKE IT HIGH 01-0360 2010 01-0370 2010 20 4D 20 CONT JSR INCPTR ;BUMP THE POINTER 01-0380 2013 20 1B 20 JSR RCVR ;GET A DATA BYTE 01-0390 2016 91 00 STA (POINT1), Y ; STORE IT 01-0400 2018 4C 10 20 JMP CONT ;KEEP LOOKING FOR DATA 01-0430 201B 01-0440 201B A9 00 RCVR LDA #0 ;DROP THE 'ACK/BUSY' LINE 01-0450 201D 8D 02 17 STA PBD 01-0460 2020 01-0470 2020 AD 02 17 DRLP1 LDA PBD ;WAIT FOR 'DATA READY' 01-0480 2023 29 01 AND #1 ;TO GO HIGH 01-0490 2025 F0 F9 BEQ DRLP 1 01-0500 2027 20 54 20 JSR DELAY 01-0510 202A AD 02 17 LDA PBD 01-0520 202D 29 01 AND #1 01-0530 202F F0 EF BEQ DRLP 1 01-0540 2031 01-0550 2031 AD 00 17 LDA PAD ;GET DATA 01-0560 2034 48 PHA ;SAVE IT 01-0570 2035 01-0580 2035 A9 02 LDA #2 ;SET 'ACK/BUSY' HIGH TO 01-0590 2037 8D 02 17 STA PBD ;SIGNAL 'DATA RECEIVED' 01-0600 203A 01-0610 203A AD 02 17 DRLP2 LDA PBD ;NOW WAIT FOR 'DATA READY' 01-0620 203D 29 01 AND #1 ;TO GO LOW 01-0630 203F D0 F9 BNE DRLP2 01-0631 2041 20 54 20 JSR DELAY 01-0632 2044 AD 02 17 LDA PBD ;...AND THEN HIGH. 01-0633 2047 29 01 AND #1 ;THIS SAYS "DATA READY" 01-0634 2049 D0 EF BNE DRLP2 01-0640 204B 68 PLA ;RECOVER DATA 01-0650 204C 60 RTS ;AND RETURN 01-0660 204D 01-0670 204D 01-0680 204D E6 00 INCPTR INC POINT1 01-0690 204F D0 02 BNE EXIT 01-0700 2051 E6 01 INC POINT 1+1 01-0710 2053 60 EXIT RTS 01-0720 2054 01-0750 2054 ;THIS IS A DUMMY DELAY ROUTINE 01-0760 2054 ;THAT WAS USED FOR TESTING PURPOSES. 01-0770 2054 01-0771 2054 60 DELAY RTS 01-0775 2055 01-0780 2055 .END
No, I'm not a computer game freak. But, I am excited about the fantasy role playing games that are becoming available for computers. The intriquing Dungeons and Dragons game really grabbed my interest. Almost from the time I first become aware of it, I was toying with ways to computerize certain aspects of it. Certainly, the dice throwing part could be computerized, as well as the bookkeeping aspects of the game—like keeping track of the character attributes and whether or not certain moves are legal as well as the relatively complicated procedure of deciding how much damage has been done by certain moves. Freeing the player from having to handle all the complex paperwork should make the game all that much more enjoyable. Any game freaks out there care to comment?
As I look around the field, I don't see too much being done in the area of multi-user/multi-computer games. Computer games have been in the man-against-computer mode for quite some time and have made computer hobbyists appear almost anti-social. It's time for a change.
A fellow at work and I are working out the details for a two-player/two-computer game which uses a couple of AIM 65 computers. The first game will be rather simplistic but it will serve to get things started. Anyone out there working along the same lines? Get in touch? Let's join fantasies.
I can picture a time when many computers are linked together playing a rather complex fantasy type game, or, perhaps a realistic simulation type game.
How would you like to develop 1802 programs on your AIM 65? Or, how would you like to set up a library of MACROS which can be called from your assembly language programs?
If either, or both of these things interests you, then you'll be interested in a new software package for the AIM 65 called MACRO.
MACRO is actually a pre-processor that works in conjunction with the AIM 65 assembler. Its function is to accept a source file that contains macro calls, expand those macros by looking them up in a library file, and outputting a new source file with all the macros expanded so that the AIM 65 ROM assembler can assemble it.
The macro library file must be set up which defines all the macros which are to be used and must be memory resident at the time the input file is submitted for expantion: (makes AIM 65 sound like a large machine, doesn't it?)
Here's an example of what it looks like:
SAMPLE MACRO INCD POINTER SAMPLE MACRO DEFINITION & INCD INC!1 BNE * + 4 INC! 1 + 1 & SAMPLE MACRO OUTPUT INC POINTR BNE * + 4 INC POINTR + 1
(The '&' character is used both to start and terminate a macro definition)
Now that last little programming sequence (incrementing a double byte pointer) is something 6502 programmers do alot of.
The same technique can be used to set up a cross assembler for most any other CPU (6800, 1802, 8080 etc). Pretty excitin' stuff!!!
According to the documentation that accompanies MACRO, the minimum usable system is an AIM 65 with 2K of RAM, the assembler ROM, and remote control of least one cassette deck. The price is $15 which includes documentation and a cassette of the object code. The source code for MACRO is available either on cassette or as a listing (you must specify) for an additional $30. (This would enable you to adapt MACRO to your 6502 floppy system).
So far, I haven't found any bugs in the system (I'm good at finding bugs) and it worked right the first time I tried it.
It's available from: POLAR SOLUTIONS
Kodiak, Al. 99615
"AID" From HDE
AID (Advanced Interactive Disassembler) is a disassembler in the truest sense of the word. AID takes a machine language program as input and creates an assembly language source file as output. (Just the opposite of an assembler).
The source file includes labels and even equates for externally referenced locations. The file can then be assembled like any other source file.
Think about it. Remember all the time you spent manually building an assembler source file from a machine language program?
I can sure remember wasting lots of time getting a conventional disassembly listing, writing in labels and then typing the whole thing into a text editor file just to be able to modify a piece of software.
Since AID lets the computer do this "dirty" work, the programmer is free to spend more time doing the work that needs a bit more intelligence.
The source files can be assembled with the assembler from HDE which is compatible with the MOS Technology Cross Assembler.
More information on this exciting new software product can be obtained from Hudson Digital Electronics, POB 120, Allamuchy, N.J. 07820. (201) 362-6574. AID costs $95 and works just great.
No, I haven't made a source file from Microsoft BASIC as of yet. But, I'm sure some of you have it in mind.